Obesity is widespread nowadays and has reached epidemic proportions all over the world, and at least 2.8 million people die each year from overweight. Although previously considered a problem confined to high-income countries, obesity is now also prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is defined by the World Health Organization as a condition of excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue, which can affect health.
This epidemic has generated the development of government policies that seek to change again the inadequate eating habits and those related to physical "inactivity." Nowadays, the increase in the intake of processed foods and the so-called "junk," associated with the technological development that "facilitates life" and ends up leading people to be more sedentary, favors this increase in weight.
As a result of this, an increasing amount of diets or nutritional plans have been developed associated with policies that try to favor the practice of the exercise. However, its effectiveness is not as expected, with a failure in these plans of more than 90%. Obesity is the result of addition and subtraction, not quantum physics. Patients consume more calories than they spend.
The surgical management of obesity has shown better advances in more than 85% of operated patients of bariatric surgery hospitals, with losses of more than 60% of excess weight. These procedures are not new since they have been carried out since the middle of the 20th century. Initially, the jejunoileal bypass, a mal-absorptive surgery, was the surgical procedure used to lose weight, showing satisfactory results. But the subsequent evidence of a very high complication rate, ranging from nephrolithiasis to fatal liver failure, to severe malnutrition, led to the discontinuation of this type of surgery.
Obesity Surgery, from Bariatric to Metabolic.
Despite the favorable results of bariatric surgery in India (balloon, bypass, ring and operation sleeve Tunisie ), they are gradually evolving in their goal of losing excess weight; new studies point to a more metabolic vision which aims at remission of diabetes. Thus, it would be legitimate to wonder about the proposal of an intervention to a patient type 2 diabetes associated with a simple overweight.
The installation of the intragastric balloon is a treatment technique recently which initiates a change in eating habits of a patient to help lose excess weight in the context of taking into multidisciplinary charge. In practice, there are two types of implanted balloons; the Bio-enteric Intra-gastric Balloon inflated with saline and the end-ball balloon inflated with air. Knowing that both gastric balloons are removed after 6 months.
Gastroplasty by Stapling
It consists of creating a pocket on the upper part of the stomach using a vertical stapling of 4 rows which allow the slimming to start directly after the operation in favor of a greater weight loss during the first month. This is a procedure indicated for a person who is significantly overweight as a radical solution or as a first intention before gastric bypass.