Prenatal development is usually seen flowing in its natural with established patterns of development with little variation. But, there are a number of things that can dent the process. The two major reasons are genetics and environmental problems.
As you might imagine, genetics play a major role in development. However, the genetic development for both future and present can have a bearing on the child's growth.
Down Syndrome: Known to one and all, Down's syndrome is also known as trisomy 21, and also the most common genetic anomaly during prenatal development. Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of the 21 chromosomes (meaning there are three chromosomes instead of the usual two) and impacts approximately 1 out of every 1,000 infants. Some of the typical features which differentiate Down syndrome include flattened facial features, heart defects, and intellectual impairment. As such the risk of having a child with Down syndrome goes on the rise with maternal age.
Inherited Diseases: They are caused primarily due to the carrying over the disease in the offspring which was the cause of misery for their parents. Examples of inherited diseases include Sickle-cell anemia, Cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs disease. For the detection of the disease, a genetic test is administered to determine if a parent is a carrier of genes for a specific disease.
Sex-Chromosome Problems: The problems of genetics can also encapsulate the sex-hormones of our body. The conditions which arise due to problems in the sex chromosome are Klinefelter's syndrome (an extra X-chromosome) and Turner syndrome (a single X-chromosome).
Shifting the focus to the genetic problems, let's check out the reasons as to why and how the environmental problems come into play:
Little do people know that environmental variables like the place of habitat, the surroundings and the level of pollution the expecting mother are exposed to have a role in prenatal development. The term "teratogens" is described for harmful environmental elements that can affect the fetus. Below are the teratogens which can harm the fetus:
Maternal Drug Use: This is a glaring problem that can have devastating consequences to the fetus. If the mother has taken to smoking, it can have negative effects like low birth weight, which can result in a weakened immune system, poor respiration, and neurological impairment. Similarly, consumption of alcohol can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The syndrome can cause heart defects, body malformations, and mental retardation. Add to that the use of illicit psychoactive drugs like cocaine and methamphetamine have also been said to have a link to low birth weight and neurological impairment.
Maternal Disease: The diseases that can affect the fetus negatively include herpes, rubella, and AIDS. Herpes virus is one of the most common maternal diseases and can be transmitted to the fetus. It can lead to deafness, brain swelling, or mental retardation. Hence, women who are suffering from herpes are always advised to deliver via cesarean as the transmission of the virus can be avoided.
To avoid any of such diseases right at the start, it is highly encouraged to book an appointment with the fertility treatment hospitals in India. After the initial round of consultation, the mother may be advised of the dos and don'ts which can be fruitful in successful delivery of the child.