Environmental degradation, the increasing frequency of genetic mutations in the population, stress, a sedentary lifestyle, eating habits, bad habits and toxic effects on the body are just an incomplete list of factors contributing to damage to the nervous system. Unfortunately, not only adults are affected. Recently, neurological diseases have noticeably "rejuvenated."

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Indeed, recently, neurological diseases have significantly "rejuvenated." At the heart of nervous diseases are dysfunctions of neurons and conductors of the brain and spinal cord, subcortical structures, nerve fibers, synapses, muscles and an imbalance of special substances - neurotransmitters.

Genetic burden in the population, diseases during pregnancy, placental pathology, toxicosis, oxygen starvation, complications during childbirth (hypoxia, birth injuries) and neuro infection can cause damage to the nervous system in newborns and children of the first year of life and lead to impaired development of the child in the older age.

In this regard, the number of patients at neurology hospitals is constantly growing, and among them, indeed, as you say, there are many children of infancy.

-And what diseases are most often affected by infants? A common pathology in children of the first year of life is still pre- and perinatal damage to the central nervous system. Severe hypoxic-ischemic, traumatic and toxic brain damage disables the child and manifests itself with varying degrees of mental retardation and motor impairment.

Most often, premature infants suffer from this ailment, in which the risk of developing an organic brain pathology is significantly higher than in full-term ones. According to some authors, 2/3 of the causes of hypoxic-ischemic and toxic brain damage act postnatally, they are predictable and practical doctors have the opportunity to prevent the development of dramatic consequences.

On the other hand, the problem of over-diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in infants remains urgent, which is unreasonably regarded by neurology hospitalsas the main factor in the majority of delays in the psychomotor development of young children.

The reasons for the overdiagnosis of HIE are due to an incorrect interpretation of the data of additional research methods and attribution to the pathological symptoms of a number of adaptive, transient phenomena from the nervous system of the newborn, such as tremors (jitteriness), postnatal depression, physiological muscle hypertension, etc.

Situations lead to these errors associated with a violation of the principles of neurological examination and differentiation of normal and deviant neurological status.

- What are the most pressing problems of pediatric neurology and pediatrics, please?

- These are, first of all, paroxysmal conditions, dizziness and headaches in children. And one of the most pressing problems is seizures of non-epileptic origin - syncope and sleep disturbance. From 30 to 50 percent of children under the age of 16 years have experienced such a condition at least once in their life. A fifth of these children suffer from seizures repetitively. The significance of this problem is determined not only by the high frequency of syncope and parasomnia but also by the different clinical content of such attacks.