Oral and oropharyngeal cancer can be treated by surgery alone or with any combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy/biotherapy. Opinions about surgical treatment, the optimal combined treatment and the sequence of treatments in the combined treatment vary greatly.

oropharynx-and-oral-cavity

Cancers of the mouth and throat may look like open sores, outgrowths or discolored areas in the mouth.

Cancer treatment hospitals in India make biopsies to diagnose cancers of the mouth and throat.

Imaging tests, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, are performed to determine the size of cancer and assess the extent of its spread.

Treatment depends on the location, size, and extent of cancer spread and may include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

How To Treat?

If oral cancer is not diagnosed and treated early, it can spread and cause continuous pain, loss of function, face and mouth deformities that cannot be corrected after treatment, and even death. Regular visits to the dentist are also important for the early detection of oral cancers.

Treatment is usually; surgical removal of all cancerous tissues, radiotherapy (using radiation to destroy cancer cells), chemotherapy (using cancer-fighting drugs) or consists of the use of these methods together. A new treatment called Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is also used in some types of oral cancer.

This treatment uses laser light and a photosensitive drug to destroy cancer cells.

Oral cancer is highly likely to heal when treated early. It may be necessary to perform some reconstructive surgery on the soft tissue or skin or to replace the bones with prostheses. Patients whose mouths were changed in the treatment; restorative dentistry, speech therapy, and nutrition counseling. Psychological support may also be necessary for people whose conversations or appearance changes after treatment.

Another side effect is the loss of the patient's hair. However, this situation is temporary. The hair comes out again after treatment. Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects. These side effects are accompanied by loss of appetite and fatigue. Chemotherapy drugs may weaken the immune mechanism, albeit temporarily, the patient may become vulnerable to infections. Therefore, it is described as a type of treatment that should be used with great care.

Surgical

 If the tumor itself or neighboring tissues need to be removed with the cleaning of the lymph glands. Due to the difficulties of eating, pain treatment may be required after surgery. Especially tissue edema and swelling can take several weeks to improve. Over time, nutritional challenges can be addressed by implementing appropriate diet programs. The team that undertakes the treatment; the patient decides whether to continue with radiotherapy or chemotherapy after surgical recovery.

Radiotherapy

Basically; it is possible to explain the high energy rays applied to the mouth and throat region by eliminating cancer cells and preventing the spread of cancer. Radiotherapy doses are determined by considering the size and location of the tumour.

The most common side effects are; dry mouth, tooth loss, sore throat, bleeding and pain in the gums, delay in oral wounds, local infections, stiffness of the jaw joint, changes in sense of smell and taste, slight burns and fatigue on the skin. During the treatment, oral care of the patient needs to be done with care. Against all side effects, the cancer treatment hospitals can help the patient through the process with appropriate supportive therapy.