There is a relationship between body weight and fertility,for both female and male. Maintaining an adequate weight will influence the chances of pregnancy, and therefore the success of assisted reproduction treatment is reduced. That is why it is very important to have a balanced diet at all times.

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Factors that affect fertility when you are underweight:

Fertility problems in low-weight women: a low level of body fat, either due to a strict diet or excessive sports, directly affects the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle, so its consequences can be:

•During puberty there may be a delay in sexual maturation.

•In adult women it can produce alterations in ovulation or interrupt it completely with the absence of menstruation (amenorrhea).

•Alteration of the internal layer that covers the uterus, directly affecting the possible implantation of the embryo.

It is estimated that the ideal weight when getting pregnant should be in an ICM between 20 and 22.

How does being overweight affect fertility in men?

According to fertility treatment hospitals in Delhi, overweight and obesity affect male fertility. While there are works that defend that the reproductive capacity of men is not affected in these situations, there are multiple studies that document that overweight and obesity in men affect the quality of semen. The main parameter that is altered is the mobility of sperm, being lower in obese males. But being overweight also increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation, that is, it directly affects sperm DNA, which translates into a lower chance of getting pregnant and an increased risk of miscarriage.

What is the relationship between obesity and female fertility?

In the case of women, being overweight produces a series of endocrine-metabolic disorders that can be translated into alterations in the menstrual cycle that lead to the absence of ovulation. In obese women, the different follicular environment, with a higher presence of triglycerides, glucose and insulin, results in poorer oocyte quality.

Once pregnancy is achieved, in obese and overweight patients, a higher probability of abortion and an increase in both maternal and fetal complications (gestational diabetes, hypertension in pregnancy, large fetuses for gestational age) have been observed. But not only that, the mother's obesity also increases the chances that the born child will have overweight problems in the future, as well as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

Does obesity affect women in fertility treatments?

In fertility treatments the response to ovarian stimulation is altered in obese women, being worse than in those with normal weight.

Oocytes from overweight or obese patients are usually smaller in size and less likely to complete development after fertilization. The evolutionary embryos from these patients had a faster development, reaching the morula stage earlier and giving rise to blastocysts with a lower content of cells in the trophoectoderm (cells that will later give rise to the placenta). Furthermore, these blastocysts had lower glucose consumption and different amino acid metabolism as well as higher levels of endogenous triglycerides.

All these data further strengthen the association between maternal nutrition, the periconceptional environment, oocyte quality and the development of the embryo and its metabolism, in addition to its impact on the health of the child after delivery. In view of the results, professionals working in fertility treatment hospitals in India should give even more importance to the treatment of overweight and obesity before starting an assisted reproduction technique, not only with the aim of increasing the pregnancy rate, but to protect the health of the future child.