The fixation of the lumbar spine allows recovering the stability or to correct the alignment of the vertebrae in the cases in which there is an alteration, either by degenerative, post-surgical, congenital or traumatic processes.
In many cases, this fixation will be carried out using transpdicular screws, which are inserted into the vertebrae through the pedicle (the portion that unites the anterior part (body) and the posterior part (arch) of the vertebra). This path allows you to obtain a good anchor point to achieve the desired correction. In other cases intersomatic boxes will be associated, a kind of wedges that are placed between the vertebrae. These will allow another point of support while providing more excellent stability to the column. While these are the most common processes, there are several others, such as interspinous devices, screws to lateral masses, laminar screws, among others.
Why the column fixation is carried out
The specialist in spine surgery Hospitals will indicate the fixation of the spine in cases in which it is necessary to correct the curvature of the spine (balance). In cases where there is instability of the spine (excessive displacement of one vertebra concerning the other) or when we anticipate secondary instability to a surgical maneuver, such as surgery for canal stenosis.
The fixation will be the norm in the surgery of herniated disc in the cervical spine, given that it has been proven that the simple discectomy involves the appearance of a cervical kyphosis (change of the curvature of the spine) in 5-10 years, which is associated with clinical deterioration.
Benefits of column fixation for the patient
The benefits are given from the recovery of column stability. The lumbar instability initially causes lumbar contractures and may appear difficulties in ambulation, in the most challenging cases, in which there may be a nervous entrapment secondary to this instability. Regarding the alteration of the balance, the situation is similar; when the spine works in an unfavorable alignment, it causes early muscular fatigue that, likewise, ends up creating contractures, fatigue, and pain. In cases of advanced discopathy, we will need intersomatic boxes to recover the height lost secondary to the discopathy.
Indications to be grasped by the patient undergoing fixation of the spine
After surgery, whenever possible, early mobilization is established. This initial ambulation must be prudent. The aim during the first month is not to recover muscle tone but to let the muscles heal and avoid complications in the arthrodesis system, which can appear when constrained to excessive tension when it is not yet mixed into the bone. From 3-4 weeks, a patient rehabilitative treatment will begin, which will typically last for a month. During this time it is advisable to avoid physical efforts, especially load weights (> 3kg).
Once this period has elapsed, it will be essential to maintain a right muscle tone, so it is advised by spine surgery hospitals in India to perform physical activities, avoiding impact (running) and rotation (golf) and, notably, the combination of them (squash). Toning the abdominal and lumbar musculature is of vital importance in patients with lumbar pathology. The muscles are the cables that support the spine and, the better the tone of the same, the lower the load that must support the joints, bones, and ligaments.