Gastrointestinal surgery is a surgical procedure which is done to treat the diseases of the parts of the body involved in digestion. Some of the vital organs which are operated in this form of surgery are esophagus (ee-sof-uh-gus), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The specialty of this surgery also encompasses the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas in the liver transplant Hospitals in Delhi. Surgery may be used to remove a cancerous or noncancerous growth or damaged part of the body, such as the intestine. Furthermore, gastrointestinal surgery can also be used to address the problems of hernia (a hole or weak spot in the wall of the abdomen). Additionally, there are minor surgical procedures can also be initiated to screen and diagnose problems of the digestive system.

The conditions treated in gastrointestinal surgery are:

·         Appendicitis- It is a condition wherein the appendix becomes infected and inflamed. It is then removed by the process called appendectomy.

·         Colon cancer and other gastrointestinal cancers- Cancerous tumors in the digestive system too are successfully removed in gastrointestinal surgery. For instance, a surgeon may remove a tumor as well as part of the pancreas, liver, or intestine with cancer.

·         Diverticular disease- A diverticulum resembles the shape of a small pouch or pocket in the colon (large intestine). Although, the reason of development is yet to known by the researchers, the diverticulum can become inflamed and cause pain (diverticulitis). This is often managed without surgery. However, if a person has developed a lot of diverticula that often become inflamed, the doctor in the surgery hospitals would recommend bowel resection surgery to remove that part of the intestine.

·         Gallbladder disease. When there is a problem with the gallbladder — usually gallstones — the gallbladder can be removed. Surgery to remove the gallbladder is also called a cholecystectomy (koh-luh-si-stek-tuh-mee).

·         Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernias. GERD, or acid reflux is when the acid from the stomach backs up into the esophagus (food pipe) and causes heartburn. Sometimes it happens because of a hiatal hernia. Under this bodily condition, the stomach gives a thrust through the diaphragm, a muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. A surgeon can do a surgery called fundoplication (fun-doh-pluh-cay-shun) to fix it.

·         Hernia. A hernia is when a part of the body (like the intestine) comes through a hole or weak spot in the wall of muscle or connective tissue that’s supposed to protect it (like the abdomen). It doesn’t come through the skin, but a bulge may be felt under the skin that’s not supposed to be there. It can also be painful. Thus, the gastrointestinal surgeons can improve the conditions of the hole or weak spot.

·         Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis- With inflammatory bowel disease, the immune system attacks the intestines and causes pain and inflammation. This can lead to damage in the intestine. Sometimes the damaged parts are removed and the healthy parts are reconnected. This is called bowel resection.

·         Rectal prolapsed- A surgery is the best alternative to treat rectal prolapse, a condition in which part of the intestine comes through the anus.

An endoscopy, which is basically a visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope, is used to screen and diagnose problems of the digestive system. In this procedure, the doctors insert a long, thin tube with a tiny camera which assists in seeing the inside of the body. If the area of the problem happens to be the stomach or esophagus, the doctor puts the scope through the esophagus. For the cases wherein the colon cancer or other intestinal problem has to be screened, the doctor puts the scope through the anus into the intestine.