In winter, every year, the ENT disorders of the child represent one of the first causes of consultation. Very common in children, and especially the youngest, ENT infections are mostly benign, but care by ENT surgery hospitals in India (doctor, pediatrician or otolaryngologist) is sometimes necessary, to treat the child and avoid complications.
What is Oto-Rhino-Laryngology?
ENT, Otorhinolaryngology, is a branch of medicine devoted to ear, nose and sinus, throat and neck anomalies.
The otolaryngologist is the specialist who diagnoses and treats various diseases and pathologies of the ENT sphere. This sphere is broad because it includes multiple areas: hearing, voice, swallowing, taste, but also breathing, smell, balance and facial aesthetics.
The most common ENT disorders of the child:
Viruses and bacteria proliferate with winter, and the area of the nose, throat, and ears of toddlers is rarely spared.
• Rhinopharyngitis (or cold):
Rhinopharyngitis is one of the most common ENT infections in children and is highly contagious. It is not uncommon between 6 months and six years, it presents four to five episodes of nasopharyngitis per year or more.
Generally caused by a virus, nasopharyngitis is the inflammation of mucous membranes of the nose and pharynx. It often starts with a sore throat, accompanied by moderate fever, and causes sneezing, discharge and nasal obstruction.
Nasopharyngitis is benign and disappears spontaneously in less than ten days. Nevertheless, bacterial superinfection can lead to complications (otitis or laryngitis, for example) requiring specific medical monitoring of the child at ENT surgery hospitals in Delhi.
The acute otitis mediais most common in children, especially between 6 months and three years. The infection spreads through the Eustachian tube and sits at the tympanum. It can be congestive or purulent.
If poorly treated, can cause the appearance of persistent otitis, in particular, mucosal otitis, which causes the effusion of infected liquid behind the eardrum and sometimes leads to a loss hearing.
Acute otitis media causes severe pains in the ear, as well as fever and, under medical treatment, heals on average in one week.
Otitis itself is not contagious but, spreading through a cold; it predisposes the child to develop it.
Laryngitis is characterized by inflammation of the larynx (the throat's phonation organ) and is usually of viral origin. Like otitis, laryngitis is often preceded by nasopharyngitis and is common in children.
It causes swelling of the larynx and can cause an itchy and dry cough, discomfort to swallow, hoarse voice and breathing difficulties.
With proper treatment, it heals on average in less than a week.
Angina is the swelling of throat, of bacterial or viral origin. It causes severe sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing and sometimes headaches. It usually affects the child over two years and is not serious.
In most cases, it is viral angina (white angina) that cannot be treated with antibiotics because they are ineffective on viruses. In the case of viral angina, it is essential to relieve your child of pain and to follow the evolution of his state of health.
Bacterial angina (red angina), it is due to a bacterium, Streptococcus, and requires a medical consultation at ENT surgery hospital to evaluate the benefit of antibiotic treatment. It rarely affects toddlers under three years old and does not represent more than 40% of angina contracted in children.
How to prevent ENT disorders?
Some simple things every day help prevent ear infections and to prevent the transmission:
• Wash your child's hands frequently with soap
• Clean your nose daily with saline
• Use paper tissues to blow the nose and throw them away
• Ventilate his room and the other rooms of the house
• Do not overheat your room
• Moisten the air, especially if the atmosphere is arid